SANTAINDIA offers a range of echo cancellation solutions including acoustic echo cancellers (AEC) and line / network echo cancellers (LEC / NEC). We have extensive experience in the development, integration, and configuration of echo cancellation solutions in a wide variety of products.

Echo Cancellation is the reduction of the reflected copies of a direct path wave in a signal. In telephony, the source of these reflections can be generated electrically due to an impedance mismatch in the transmission path or as a result of an acoustic and/or mechanical coupling between a loudspeaker and a microphone, usually because they are in the same physical enclosure. For acoustic/mechanical coupling an Acoustic Echo Canceller (AEC) is required; whereas, a Line Echo Canceller (LEC) is used to address impedance mismatch.

Acoustic Echo Cancellation is an essential part of providing speech enhancement (or voice quality enhancement) to any telephone communication. An acoustic echo canceller (AEC) operates on the digitally sampled audio signals of the communication device. The transfer function of the acoustic environment from the loudspeaker to the microphone on the device is estimated to cancel the received echoes from the microphone signal.

Adaptive Filters

An adaptive filter is used in voice echo cancellation to accommodate the time varying nature of the echo path. The filter learns the path when the far-end speaker is talking and the near-end speaker is silent and adjusts its coefficients (transfer function) according to the algorithm optimization criterion.

Echo Tail Length

Echo tail length is considered the length of the impulse response of the echo path. The required length of the tail is dependent on the application. For line echoes the impulse is generally in the range of 8 to 32ms, while acoustic impulse responses can be on the order of 100ms.

Double-Talk Detection

For an adaptive filter to learn the echo path it must have an undisturbed reference signal to adapt to. Unfortunately, in full-duplex communications, this scenario cannot be guaranteed as the near-end speaker may want to interrupt the far-end speaker. In other words, the near-end and far-end speakers will be talking simultaneously (double-talk), resulting in disturbances in the reference signal. These disturbances will result in divergent behavior of the adaptive filter and double talk detection is required to slow adaptation of the filter and prevent divergence.

Non-Linear Processing

Non-linear processing is the removal of residual echo left by the adaptive filter. Residual echoes are the un-modeled components of the echo path. Most adaptive filters are linear and can only cancel the linear portions of the echo path. Thus the nonlinear portions cannot be removed via the adaptive filter and a residual echo suppressor follows the filter to handle nonlinear portions of the echo that remain.